This chapter gives an overview of the research. It discusses the background, statement of problem, research question, objectives, significance, and the scope of this research work.
1.2 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In the field of education and psychology, learning has been discovered all over the world to be a highly complex problem. Several researchers have tried to explain it differently and the description which is true, researches on factors that influence academic performance of students have attracted the interest of not only researchers but concern of teachers, counselors, psychologists, and administrators as well study method is the knowledge and application of effective study skills and techniques by students. The term study habit refers to the way in which students study either systematically, efficient or inefficiently. In line with what has been said above, we can deduce that good study habit will definitely yield positive academic performance and achievement and also inefficient of poor study habit leads to academic failure. Students’ attitude and study habit towards any subject has been described as a function of passion coupled with their belief on that particular which has a long way to go on their academic performances.
The student performance play an important role in producing the best quality graduates who will become great leaders and manpower for a country thus responsible for the country economic and social development,( Ali et al.,2009) student performance occupies a very important place in education as well as in the learning process.
It has long been recognized that in the process of learning the study habits of the student plays an important role in their academic performance. Learning is reflected in the way a student respond to environment, social, emotional and physical stimuli and understands new information.
The key to better learning and better academic performance in schools are good teachers, lecturers, good study environment, parent’s co-operation, high quality books and the most important is the study habit. Study habits are learning tendencies that enable students to work privately.
Azikiwe (1998) describes the study habit as “the adopted way and manner a student plans his private readings, after classroom learning so as to attain mastery of the subject”. According to her, “good study habits are good assets to learners because the (habits) assist students to attain mastery in areas of specialization and consequent excellent performance, while opposite constitute constraints to learning and achievement leading to failure”.
Good (1998) define the term study habits as: The student’s way of study whether systematic, efficient or inefficient etc”. Going by this definition it literally means that good study habit produces positive academic performance while inefficient study habit leads to academic failure.
In Nigeria, there are so many factors influencing the ability of students to cultivate effective and efficient study habit. Ozmert (2005) emphasized the importance of environmental influence as a major factor in the development of students studying habit. In the same vein, Adetunji and Oladeji (2007) submit that the environment of most children is not conducive for studying; it is in the light of this that made some parents to prefer their children to go to boarding school for proper discipline and to inculcate better reading habit.
According to Hussain (2006) secondary school students in public schools often come from economically poor and average income families. These families face various problems causing emotional disturbance among their children. They have poor academic performance. This singular factor has caused serious damage to the achievement status to secondary school students.
Achievement is generally a pedagogical terminology used while determining learners’ success in formal education and which is measured through reports examinations, researches, and ratings with numerous factors of variables exerting influence. Essentially, the National Policy on education (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004) has identified school achievement contents according to school subjects which are classified as core or elective subjects.
Good study habits are essential ingredients for excellent academic performances for every student. For study to be effective, Freeman and Mors (1993) have observed that it should be regular, intense and should cover long periods. The habits of studying must be a sustainable one, for that matter students must see the need to develop good study habits.
Although studies abound on the causative and predictive nature of factors of study habit on students academic achievement, all factors of the variables tend to focus on poor study habit while the effect is yet to be fully accessed on the nations educational development.
Study habits are important as they influence the academic performance of students so parents and teachers must help in improving the study habits of students.
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Due to the increasing nature of poor academic performance of secondary school students especially in external examinations like WAEC or JAMB and others, many educationists tend to shift the blame on the teaching methodology adopted by the teachers and lack of fund from the government to provide quality textbooks. However, these might not be the main reasons why students perform poorly in examinations. It is clear from all indications that
most secondary school students have poor study habit which might lead to poor academic performance. As true as this might sound, it is yet to gather adequate research evidence to prove that it is a key factor on why students fail.
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The primary objective of this study is to examine the effect of study habit on student’s academic performance of student in Jos North Local Government Area. This general objective is expressed in the following specific objectives which are to:
Assess the study habit of students in secondary school students in the Jos North Local Government Area;
Compare the academic performance of students who have developed a study habit and those who do not have study habit;
Examine factors influencing students study habit;
Investigate the effect of study habit on student’s academic
Performance in the Jos North Local Government Area
1.5 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
A hypothesis is a tentative statement linking two or more variable in a correlation to establish a relationship that, further subjection to test will confirm such relationship as either positive or negative. The following are the two hypotheses that are to be tested.
Ho: Study habit does not have any significance impact on student academic performance.
Hi: Study habit has significance impact on student academic performance.
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following questions were raised to guide the study:
Is there any relationship between students study habit and academic performance?
What is the nature of relationship between students study habit and their family background?
How important is method of study habit on academic performance of students?
Do the school environment, student personality and peer group affect the study habit of students?
1.7 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
This study will be used to many people who may want to know the factors that could improve student’s academic performance. Therefore, the study is significant in this regard.
It attempts to combine study skills with study habit and how they both affect academic performance of students. It will provide valuable information about the effects of poor study habit on the academic performance of students. It will serve as resource materials for others who want to carry out research in related field. The researchers believes that students, particularly secondary school student will be benefited from the findings of this study since the study provides basis for awareness and better understanding of how their current study habits affected their academic performance. Likewise gives them a more focused and clear perspective on how the specific behaviors related toothier studies influenced study habits.
1.8 DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS
To make a research work such as this comprehensive to even an average reader, it became every important to define some salient features involved in the theme. These salient terms are defined as follows:
STUDY- Study has been said to be the application of the mind to the acquisition of knowledge, as by reading, investigation or reflection.
HABIT- Habit is an acquired behavior pattern regularly followed until it has become almost involuntary.
STUDY HABIT- This is a behavior style that is systematically formed by students towards learning and achievement. Also are the ways that you study- the habit that you have form during your schools years.
STUDY SKILLS- These are peculiar strategies developed by the students in studying.
ACADEMIC- This has been variously defined but for the purpose of this study, Hornby (1991) define academic has that which has to do with school college studies or learning in other words designate the intellectual; aspect of education particularly the final subject deals with organized knowledge.
PERFORMANCE- Performance is define as the accomplishment of a given task measured against preset known standards of accuracy. Completeness cost and speed.
STUDENTS- Student is a person formally engaged in learning, especially one enrolled in a school or college.
1.9 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study is on the effect of study habit on the academic performance of senior secondary school student in jos north local government area. This study is limited to government and private secondary schools in Jos North Local Government Area in Nigeria.
Despite the limited scope of this study certain constraints were encountered during the research of this project. Some of the constraints experienced by the researcher were given below:
i. TIME: This was a major constraint on the researcher during the period of the work. Considering the limited time given for this study, there was not much time to give this research the needed attention.
ii. FINANCE: Owing to the financial difficulty prevalent in the country and it’s resultant prices of commodities, transportation fares, research materials etc. The researcher did not find it easy meeting all his financial obligations.
iii. INFORMATION CONSTRAINTS: Nigerian researchers have never had it easy when it comes to obtaining necessary information relevant to their area of study from private schools and even government schools. The staffs in all these schools are finding it difficult to reveal their internal operations. The primary information was collected through face-to-face interview getting the published materials on this topic meant going from one library to other which was not easy.
Although these problems placed limitations on the study, but it did not prevent the researcher from carrying out a detailed and comprehensive research work on the subject matter.
1.10 CHAPTER SYNOPSIS
This work is organized in five chapters and appendices as follows:
CHAPTER ONE: In this section the introduction to the work is made and the whole idea of this study presentation, like objective of the study, the researcher question and the formulated hypothesis, statement of the research, area of coverage, limitation and definition of terms all this makes up the chapter one.
CHAPTER TWO: This section deals with the review of study, review of concept, theories upon which this work is built on as its theoretical framework, the empirical study for this work and some potential issues in the study.
CHAPTER THREE: This section talks about the research methodology, the calculation for the research population and the research presentation format, also the test for the reliability for source of data is tested.
CHAPTER FOUR: In this chapter the study is presented and all the analysis to it, is made, also, discussion and findings to the current study is drawn and a summary to the analysis.
CHAPTER FIVE: These chapter summaries the whole work done and make possible recommendation and suggest other points to be included into the work for future propose.
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