Articles for August 2017

STATISTICS ANALYSIS OF READING HABITS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

TABLE OF CONTENT:

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
1.3 Objectives of the Study
1.4 Significance of the Study
1.5 Research Questions
1.6 Research Hypothesis
1.7 Conceptual and Operational Definition
1.8 Assumptions
1.9 Limitations of the Study

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Sources of Literature
2.2 The Review
2.3 Summary of Literature Review

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Method
3.2 Research Design
3.3 Research Sample
3.4 Measuring Instrument
3.5 Data Collection
3.6 Data Analysis
3.7 Expected Result
CHAPTER FOUR
DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
4.1 Data Analysis
4.2 Results
4.3 Discussion
CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary
5.2 Recommendations for Further Study
Bibliography

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1Background of the study
Study habits are strategies which a learner applies for acquiring knowledge, skills and ideas. Good study habits enhance academic performance and educational success. Study habits therefore, involve a series of activities and dispositions which a learner must acquire to enable him/her engage in academic studies. Students, sometimes perform far below the expected average. This may not be as a result of low ability level but often times as a result of poor study habits. The emphasis on study habits is based on theories that have been propounded on how to enhance academic performance among students through good study habits (Jemide 2001).. In spite of other factors affecting performance, such as inadequate facilities, laziness, over-indulgence in television programmes and movies, social network (e.g. twitter, Facebook), lack of good library facilities at home and at school, poor lighting system, emergence of secret cults, and general indiscipline, educational success requires the acquisition of effective and good study habits, dedicated pursuit of learning and willingness to accept corrections (Agina-Obu 2001). Some of such study habits include intensive reading, note taking, group-study, attending to class activities, partaking in home work and assignment. However, this paper focuses on statistical analysis of reading.

Reading is an indispensable tool in learning that forms an integral part of any learning situation, and the bedrock of education. Therefore, Access to information is crucial to individual advancement as well as corporate educational development. Information is indispensable, and, according to Yusuf (2007), bridges the gap between knowledge and ignorance. One of the major avenues for acquiring information is reading. Reading is the foundation upon which other academic skills are built. It offers a productive approach to improving vocabulary, word power, and language skills. Tella and Akande (2007) assert that the ability to read is at the heart of self-education and lifelong learning and that it is an art capable of transforming life and society. Yani (2003) posits that reading habits of Nigerians are a matter of concern in our educational and national development, stating further that in a developing country like Nigeria, the concept of reading habits should not be relegated to the background. This is because through reading, human beings get better informed and understanding of the universe they live on. More so, reading makes a way for better understanding of one’s own experience and can be an exciting voyage of self discovery. A child that forms the habit of reading is always different from his peer group at school because he becomes more knowledgeable than them and understands better than his colleagues what they are being taught in class. Adetunji (2007) described reading as the act of translating symbols or letters into word or sentences that have meaning to an individual. It is also the understanding of what is seen in a text, which is the ability of reader to take incoming visual information, process that information and obtain meaning from it. Reading can also be perceived to be a process of constructing meaning through dynamic interaction among the reader’s existing knowledge, the information suggested by the text being read, and the context of the reading situation. The Wikipedia online dictionary defines reading as a complex cognitive process of decoding symbols in order to construct or derive meaning.
It is a complex interaction between the text and the reader which is shaped by the reader’s prior knowledge, experience, altitude and language community which is culturally and socially situated.
Both reading and reading habits seems to be almost the same, but nevertheless, Okoro 2004 emphasized the importance of introducing children to reading very early in life even before the child steps into school so that children can see reading as a means of enjoyment, self – development, love of literature and learning, it is widely believed that enterprise of developing reading habit has to start at the early part of one’s life and that these should be a conducive reading environment to stimulate lifelong reading. Therefore, Sanzkaeo (1999) sees reading habits to be the behavior which expresses the liking for reading of individual types and tastes for reading. Reading habit is a pattern in which individual organizes his reading. Having a reading habit in students is very necessary, because one of the most important factor of education is the ability to read, understand and critically apprehend the text.(Hetting and Knapp 2001). However to be able to inculcate reading habit, students must develop the habit of reading on daily basis. Beck and Mckeoun (2001) is of the view that the capability of understanding text and reading habits should be developed from early childhood through the whole life. Green, (2001) explained that reading habit is best formed at a young impressionable age in school, but once formed it can last one’s life.

1.2 Statement of the Problem
By and large, the importance of reading cannot be overemphasized, because no learning activity or situation can take place without reading. But one of the major problems facing the educational system in Nigeria is the abysmal failure of students in public examinations especially at the senior secondary level of education. (Ajayi 2012). This abysmal failure can be conceived to be linked with the absence of reading habit among students or non challant attitude to reading to the use of internet. Although there are many reasons why people read, but observations and researches have shown that there is a low reading habit among students in recent times, especially in developing countries, because reading is not considered as a relevant leisure activity as it does not form part of children’s social interaction and watching of television.
Another major problem that leads to the absence of reading habits among students is on the advents of ICTs like internet, cell phone, video games and other viewing gadgets. Umar (2009) is of the view that students now have viewing culture instead of reading culture because of the advents of these ICTs gadgets.
Also the lack of available information resources like texts books both in the school library and at homes also could lead to lack of students forming the habits of reading. The foregoing reasons prompted the researchers to analyse the level of reading habits and academic performance amongst secondary school students in Ikeja Local Government Area of Lagos State.

1.3 Research Questions
1. What is the statistical analysis of reading among secondary school students in Local Government Area of Lagos State?
2. What types of reading materials are available to the students both in school and at homes?
3. What purpose do they derive from reading and benefit they gain?
4. What are the likely problems hindering the lack of reading habits amongst the senior secondary school students?
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The general objective of this study is the statistical analysis of reading habit among the secondary school students in Ikeja Local Government Area of Lagos State.
1. To find out the level and frequency of reading amongst the secondary school students in Ikeja Local Government Area of Lagos State.
2. To find out the types of reading materials available to the students both at homes and in their libraries.
3. To find out the benefits they can derive from having a good reading habit.
4. To find out the likely problems that hinders the secondary school students from forming the habits of reading and to proffer solutions to the likely problems hindering them from reading.

1.5 Research Hypothesis
Research hypotheses
i. There is no significant difference between reading habits and academic performance among senior secondary school students having good, average and poor study.
ii. There is no significant relationship between study habits and academic achievement of junior secondary school students in home economics.
1.6 Significance of the study
The beneficiaries of this study are the teachers in secondary schools, the students, parents and future researchers. The findings of this study provided information to the teachers and students on the types of study habits that enhance students’ academic achievement in junior secondary schools. The teachers would use the information to guide the students on the best study habits to adopt. The students would use the information to adjust on their study habits to improve their academic achievement in their various subjects.
The parents would use the findings of this study to understand one of the causes of their children’s poor academic achievement. They could also use the information to advice and encourage their children on the type of study habits to adopt for better academic achievement in all the school subjects. The findings of this study would be beneficial to future researchers as it would serve as a pointer from which other studies could be carried to determine relevant factor that influence academic achievement of students the schools subjects in secondary schools.
1.7 Scope of the study
The research would focus on the statistical analysis of reading habits and academic performance of some senior students in Ikeja Local Government Area of Lagos.
1.8 Definition of Terms
1. Reading: Reading is the ability to understand words contained in a document and make use of the knowledge for personal growth and development (Dadzie, 2008).
2. Habit: Habits are strategies which a learner applies for acquiring knowledge, skills and ideas.
3. Academic Performance: it is the degree of success attained at the end of an academic exercise which can be conceived to mean the extent one is able to accomplish after learning has taken place.

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