In the global world, Africa is the least developed continent compared to other continents of the world. Africa has for long depended on their colonial masters for development. African countries for decades were colonized in different parts by different countries of the world with the objective of exploiting the African economy at their expense. The Nigerian economy of the self sufficiency became transferred to that of dependency under the colonial era, to the extent that
more than half the populations were thought to be living on an everyday level of a very low order, with wide-spread hunger and disease. One of the major issues responsible for the underdevelopment of Nigeria at the early period was the partitioning and buck ionization of African states by their colonial masters. This study sets out to examine how the corruption which manifested through capitalist accumulation by the comprador bourgeoisie has placed Nigeria in a disadvantaged position in her relationship with developed countries, thereby making Nigerian
economy to be dependent on foreign capital. The central questions to this study are; does the struggle for capital accumulation inhibit the industrialization of the Nigerian economy between 2000 and 2010?; does the leadership crisis resulting from the struggle for capital accumulation engender underdevelopment in Nigeria between 2000 and 2010?; and is there a positive relationship between the comprador nature of the elite and the dependent of the Nigerian economy on foreign capital between 2000 and 2010?We hypothesized that the struggle for capital accumulation has hindered the industrialization process in Nigeria; the leadership crisis resulting from the struggle for capital accumulation has engendered underdevelopment of the Nigerian economy; and there is a positive relationship between the comprador nature of the elite and the dependent of the Nigerian economy on foreign capital. The study employed secondary sources
for data collection, relied on the ex-post facto research design, and with analysis that was qualitative descriptive. Findings based on the dependency theory revealed that the struggle for capital accumulation by the Nigeria comprador bourgeoisie has led to leadership crisis and has given room for the accommodation of corrupt practices and has also hindered the industrialization process in Nigeria, and made the Nigeria’s development to be dependent on foreign capital. The study equally revealed that the Nigerian state has made so many developmental policies and plans of actions over the years, but has always been reluctant in implementing these policies due to the parochial interests of the comprador bourgeoisie who are
only interested in making profit for its members. The study recommends amongst other things that the Nigerian state should put in place effective measures that can help to reduce primitive capital accumulation which is manifested through corrupt practices. The government should also put into effective action all or most of the policies and plans that have been made since independence towards industrialization of the Nigerian economy as no nation have attained developed status without being industrialized. The Nigerian state should as a matter of fact
provide the basic and needed infrastructural facilities such as power, access roads, credit facilities and other conducive environment for developmental projects to be embarked upon by both the government and private or corporate bodies.
1.1 Background to the Study
In the global world, Africa is the least developed continent compared to other continents of the world. Africa has for long depended on their colonial masters for development. African countries for decades were colonized in different parts by different countries of the world with the objective of exploiting the African economy at their expense. The resources in Africa were control by their colonial masters. Colonialism arose out of the need for European nations to have
direct political control over their colonies so as to ensure the protection of their economic interest. Colonialism is a system of exploitation, but one whose main purpose was to repatriate the profits to the colonialists’ home countries. By exporting the profits created by African Labour to Europe, the development of Europe was assured at the expense of the African countries (Oba et al 2011). The responsibility of developing Africa is placed in the custody of the
metropolitan states. Instances could be seen in the way and manner African states depend on the financial institutions in developed countries for loans and grants; and other development assistants. The metropolis implicitly or explicitly, implied that sub-Saharan Africans development was lagging far behind other regions of the world because of the obvious “Innate” Inferiority of black people to master the Socio-economic and technological environment in order to improve their social and economic conditions” (Matunhu 2011).
Rodney (1972) in his work “How Europe Underdeveloped African” demonstrated that in the fifteenth century (the period of first encounter between Europeans and Africans) the continent had already established empires in the East, Central, West and South of the Continent)”. The empires of Mali and Songhai in West Africa;Tshaka in Zululand, Mossi to the East of Mali and Kingdom of Dahomey in the Central part of Africa; were some of the most powerful in wealth and territorial expansion (Rodney, 1972). The economies of the above states were composed of farmers, artisans’ gold and Silver Smiths, weavers, wood carver cloth makers,
medicine men, experts in naturopathy, and Sculptors of wood, iron and terracotta. The arrival of the Portuguese in Africa in 1444 had an influence on African’s development. It was the entrance of the West into Africa that brought about a paradigm shift on how Africa should develop. The Westerners desired to change African’s development course in favour of theirs. The “enlightened” then tasked themselves with the responsibility of developing Africa along a new
course. The claim was that African’s development had to pass through distinct stages (Matunhu 2011).
It has argued by scholars such as (Nnoli 1981) and others that the imperialist diverted the attention of Nigerians away from local creative potentials and resources by focusing on the procurement of Slaves on the product of primary resources needed by Europeans. More so, Slave -trade caused the loss of many able bodied men from the local economics, who are supposed to performed the different economic activities, thereby leading to lowering of economic activities in the area. Sincethe co-operation and peace required by the indigenes for development in the area have been chartered by the Europeans for production of primary goods for the European economy, lesser attention were given to the production of subsistence products, required for food by Nigerian (Nnoli 1981). This was subsequently followed by the mining of minerals like tin, Columbite, gold and so on. With the introduction of this new productive economic order and for most Nigerians to meet their needs, they moved to urban areas, and in some cases, to plantation settlements, to seek for wage employment that was introduced by the Europeans. The Europeans used them for unskilled and semi-skilled labour, and they were paid meager wages for their long hours of services.
The Nigerian economy of the self-sufficiency became transferred to that of dependency under the colonial era, to the extent that more than half of the populations were thought to be living on an everyday level of a very low order, with wide-spread hunger and disease. Though, it could be said that the imperialist built roads, railways and communication systems, these roads and railways network when looked at critically, were primarily meant to serve the export and
import trade, which enable them to transport their goods from the northern part of the country to the coast with ease; for shipment on the onward transportation to the imperialist countries and not necessarily to encourage internal trade and communication, as it were. The communication system was meant to facilitate communication between the imperialists and Nigerians, in order, to protect and facilitate their ideals in Nigeria” (Offiong 1980). The introduction of western education in Nigeria was not geared toward the development of Nigeria but to facilitate exploitative moves, especially in the areas of where they had feeling of being capable useful, such as interpreters to the missionaries and this enabled, the Nigerians to provide cheap and semi-skilled labour, like clerks and otherwise, for the imperialist various projects of exploitation.
The imperialists in these areas carried out the educational programmes in Nigeria where there were abundant resources. The activities of the Europeans/imperialist have been seen as the retardation to economic development (Offiong 2011). This Otite (2011) argued that the system whereby the exploitation and control of Nigeria economic activities by the imperialist through the local bourgeoisie, who act as their agents of exploitation, came into operation, with the result that misappropriation and mismanagement of government funds for selfish interest, corruptive acts and some other effects now became the order of the day. Thereby leading to under development of Nigerian, as it is today. Nigeria being a state dominated economy, the colonial masters tried to be in-charge of the economic resources of the state, right from the colonial era to the present day. And through this, the colonial masters tried to perpetrate their exploitative
motives right from their intervention into Nigerian society. With this exploitative motive behind all the activities found, Nigerian leaders as more conducive avenue of achieving this. Part of the difficulties that led to decline in the economic growth of the continent were due to the failure to effectively implement national, sub-regional, regional and global polices on the development in the areas of structural adjustment policies, regional economic integration arrangements, such as Economic Community of West African State (ECOWAS) and South African Development (SAD). At the regional levels the Lagos plan of Action and Final Act of Lagos (1981) was an important development programme that was not effectively implemented (Olaniyan 2007). This study intends to examine the way and manner economic dependency has caused underdevelopment in Africa, using Nigeria as case study between 2000 and 2010.
1.2 Statement of Problem
One of the major issues responsible for the underdevelopment of Africa at the early
period was the partitioning and balkanization of African states by their colonial masters. The main reason which accounted for this, was that the colonial masters had the objective of dampen into the African economy through the introduction of western education and missionary activities as a means of gaining cheap access to Nigeria economic resources by using the education and missionary activities to capture the interest of those who would have mind their business in the continent and Nigeria in particular. Ihercohanma and Oguoma (2010) observed that underdevelopment in Africa is traced to the era when Africans sold or exchanged their brothers and sisters for foreign goods, political and economic power, security, self-aggrandizement etc. The era when Africans sold their relations to the white explorers because they perceived them to be enemies, oppositions, for material and wealth acquisition and source of income. Slave trading had deleterious effects on
human capital and economic development in Africa. The human resources that could have been harnessed and crystallized for economic and leadership development in Africa were deployed, under inhuman treatment and strict supervision, in plantations and other artisan works (Frank 1966; Rodney 1972; Eke 1983;Emeagwali 2004 and Ogungbamila 2005). Consequently, African was denied of the labour and entrepreneurship of the slaves. What became a woe to Africa was
delight to the foreign explorers. Some of the slaves were also deployed in some mines in Ghana, Zimbabwe, South Africa etc. for gold mining and plantation farms (Shaw, 1976).
Dike (2011) however, observed that the problem with the Nigerian economy is that the leaders have allowed the keystones of the economy to rot away. And this often leads to weak economy, high unemployment, social crisis and political instability which scares away domestic and international entrepreneurs from the economy, and also causes socio-political and economic problems in the society. And it appears nobody is making serious efforts to tackle the challenges facing the nation. The economies are thus, in shackles because the leaders are engrossed in destructive destruction (Schumpeter, 1942).
In exploring Africa’s underdeveloped States, it is observed that Africans did not take seriously the solution to certain clandestinely detrimental problems that arose from their societies. The issues of criminals and banishment or ostracism of criminals and perceived oppositions, and in addition those perceived to be insolvent such as Osu in Igbo land, South east of Nigeria indicate that Africans did not realize the implications of their actions and the disregard and neglect for rehabilitation and provision of secured places for those banished or sold off
(Iheriohanma and Oguoma 2010). Also it is argued that the Psychological act and fear of insecurity in African societies of old are still manifest in Modern-day African politics and governance of divide and rule and comprador-ship. There is insecurity, political instability, intolerance of oppositions and Paralleled Political Parties in the Land. The Current Situations in Robert Mugabe’s and Morgan Tsvangarai’s Zimbabwe, South Africa’s African National Congress (ANC) in-fighting and allegations concerning Thambo Mbeki, Jacob Zuma, etc, Sudanese’s government/ethnic militia of Janjaweed in Darfur and Southern Sudan, substantiate
this claim (Likoti, 2007). The insecurity and Poverty situation account for this brain drain in African. A health nation is a wealthy nation. When citizens are poor, they cannot access health care facilities, their capacities are not developed, it implies that the resource endowments in the area are dormant and unexplored. Developed human Capital is the catalyst for resource development. This gave the foreigners engaged in foreign direct investment opportunities to exploit the area and further underdeveloped the economy. There is noticeable increase in the
deterioration of infrastructures and socials services in underdeveloped countries as a result of poor management of resources, poor governance and corruption. Where infrastructural development is carried out at all, it lacks quality, integrity and comparable standard. Reducing public expenditure and removal of subsidies on essential facilities and commodities implies deepening the poverty situation and underdevelopment. The issue is that there is need therefore, to explore ways of mitigating underdevelopment in Africa. It is within the confine of the above
argument that this study seek to provide answers to the following questions below:
1. Does the struggle for capital accumulation inhibit the industrialization of the Nigerian economy between 2000 and 2010?
2. Does the leadership crisis resulting from the struggle for capital accumulation engender underdevelopment in Nigeria between 2000 and 2010?
3. Is there a positive relationship between the comprador nature of the elite and the
dependent of the Nigerian economy on foreign capital between 2000 and 2010?
1.3 Objectives of the Study
This study has both broad and specific objectives. The broad objective of this study is to examine the challenges dependency and underdevelopment in Africa, using Nigeria as a case study. However, the specific objectives of the study are:
1. To examine how the struggle for capital accumulation has hindered the industrialization of Nigerian economy between 2000 and 2010.
2. To find out whether the leadership crisis resulting from the struggle for capital
accumulation has engendered underdevelopment in Nigeria between 2000 and 2010.
3. To ascertain whether there is a positive relationship between the comprador nature of the elite and the dependent of the Nigerian economy on foreign capital between 2000 and 2010.
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